Selecting a watch that you will use and enjoy for many years to come can be a fun and easy process with a little bit of knowledge.
|If you’re not sure what kind of watch to buy and what kind of functions it should have, consider the following.
Choosing Your Style
More than just something you wrap around your wrist to help keep you punctual, a watch can help punctuate your personal style, as well. The first thing to ask yourself is, when and how will I be wearing this watch? In the end, a watch is a reflection of you and your lifestyle, just like the clothes you wear or the car you drive.
The watch that you select should be appropriate for the activities for which you intend to use it. If your primary purpose is athletic, you might consider watches that are shock-proof. If you will be using the watch for work and play, do you need water-resistance, and if so, to what degree? If you will be using the watch for swimming and diving, you might want to consider a watch that has a screw-down crown or a plastic strap.
You’ll also want to consider how much you want to spend on a timepiece. The $50 to $200 range brings durability as well as accuracy and stylistic flourishes. You’ll find some models sporting chronographs and other multifunction complications, as well as some with gold-plated stainless steel cases and bracelets. In the $200 to $500 range, style gets ramped up, often with more sophisticated movements, diamond accents, or solid gold cases and bracelets.
When shopping for a timepiece, whatever the price or style, the brand name can play an important part in determining the right watch for you. Brand choice can be very subjective and will vary from person to person. Ultimately, it comes down to how you perceive a brand and what it represents, as well as what speaks to your sensibilities – high style or horological history, modern or traditional, collectible or affordable.
Choose a casual watch that fits your personality and lifestyle. Think about the colors you wear the most and try to match them to the watch.
Think thin if you want the watch to fit under your sleeves, or think bigger if you want to stand out.
Both men and women can add diamond or gemstone accents for formal occasions.
Metal bracelet bands are usually preferable, but fine leather shouldn’t be overlooked.
See dress watches from Anne Klein, Bulova, Citizen and Seiko.
Look for a sport watch that is easy to read, such as a digital watch. The case of the watch is typically larger to house the timer, alarm, and other features found in sport watches.
Choose a water-resistance level appropriate for your needs. For instance, scuba divers should look for a minimum rating of 200 meters.
On analog watches, look for a rotating bezel to aid in timing specific events. For serious runners and bikers, a digital watch provides a wider range of timing features.
Watch band material should be based on personal preference and type of sport. The most popular material for sport watches is plastic or rubber.
See sport watches from Armitron, Casio, Puma and Timex.
If you’re in the market for a fashion watch, the rules go out the window. A great way to update your look or accentuate an outfit, fashion watches can be a rather personal choice.
Look for a watch that speaks to your artistic sensibilities, or can be thought of as an extension of your personality. Today, oversized and chunky watch cases are in, with some men’s watches measuring well over 50 millimeters (2 inches) wide. To try out a new trend, try playing with your accessories. Not everyone can wear the hottest color in clothing, but everyone can wear it in a watch. Don’t be afraid to try different styles and colors in your watches. Now is the time to be fashionable.
See fashion watches from GUESS, Ed Hardy, Invicta and Swatch.
With high-end luxury watches from Cartier, Omega, Movado, and TAG Heuer, you’re paying for the finest materials, expert craftsmanship, and exclusivity (fewer numbers are manufactured for individual models). A fine watch is a wonderful heirloom to pass down from one generation to the next.
Consider one with automatic movement and a skeletonized dial or exhibition caseback which display the craftsmanship of the watchmaker. While fine watches are made all over the world today, Swiss watches still enjoy the highest reputation due to the wealth of knowledge and infrastructure built up in the Swiss watch industry over centuries. Keep in mind that a watch can only be given the coveted Swiss Made label if its movement is made, assembled, and inspected in Switzerland. A watch may have Swiss movement if the automatic movement was made in Switzerland and the watch was subsequently assembled elsewhere.
See luxury watches from Cartier, GUCCI, Movado, Omega and TAG Heuer.
How Watches Work
In addition to their exterior beauty, watches are also an incredible feat of engineering and craftsmanship. This section contains an overview of the major parts of a watch, as well as an explanation of how watches operate.
Many complicated parts must all work in tandem in order to not only tell time, but perform a myriad of other functions. These could include a chronograph, altimeter, alarm, day/date calendar, moon phase, and slide rule bezel. Below are descriptions of the major internal and external parts and their functions.
The movement of a watch refers to the mechanics that power the ticking of the timepiece, and there are two main choices when it comes to analog watches (watches with hour hands and are not digital), quartz or automatic.
What you choose really comes down to what you’re looking for in a watch. There are many ways to look at what’s attractive about both types of watches, but one way to look at it is the quartz watch as more practical and the automatic watch as more emotional.
The majority of watches made today utilize the vibrations of a tiny quartz crystal to maintain timing, with the power coming from a battery that needs to be replaced every 2 to 3 years. Watches with quartz movements are more accurate, losing about a minute of accuracy over a year, and they can have either analog or digital displays, or both.
Shop Men’s or Women’s Quartz Watches
Some quartz watches are solar-powered, storing light that enters through the dial face, which eliminates visits to the jeweler to change the battery.
Shop Men’s or Women’s Solar Watches
Atomic watches can be calibrated daily (or several times a day) via radio signals from an atomic clock (such as the one located in Fort Collins, Colorado). Atomic time is measured through vibrations of atoms in a metal isotope that resembles mercury. The result is an extremely accurate time that can be measured on instruments. Radio waves transmit this exact time throughout North America, enabling some atomic watches to correct themselves to the exact time.
Image courtesy of Casio watches
Shop Men’s or Women’s Atomic Watches
Automatic watches are made up of about 130 or more parts that work together to tell time. Automatic movements mark the passage of time by a series of gear mechanisms, and are wound by the movement of your wrist as you wear it. The gear train then transmits the power to the escapement, which distributes the impulses, turning the balance wheel. The balance wheel is the time regulating organ of a mechanical watch, which vibrates on a spiral hairspring. Lengthening or shortening the balance spring makes the balance wheel go faster or slower to advance or retard the watch. The travel of the balance wheel from one extreme to the other and back again is called oscillation. Lastly, automatic movements come in different types, including movements that are Swiss-made, Japanese-made, and more.
Also referred to as self-winding, watches with automatic movements utilize kinetic energy, the swinging of your arm, to provide energy to an oscillating rotor to keep the watch ticking. They’re considered more satisfying to watch collectors (horologists) because of the engineering artistry that goes into the hundreds of parts that make up the movement. If you do not wear an automatic watch consistently (for about 8 to 12 hours a day), you can keep the watch powered with a watch winder (a great gift for collectors). You should refer to your owner’s manual for recommended service intervals.
Shop Men’s or Women’s Automatic Watches
Automatic Watch Maintenance
Although automatic (also called “mechanical”) watches do not have batteries, some easy-to-follow maintenance is necessary for continued and long-lasting good use.
Self-winding automatic watches depend on the movement of the arm to operate and do require some winding, even if you wear your watch on a daily basis.
If you wear your automatic watch every day, it is best to wind it once every two weeks to keep the wheels in motion and oil fluid. Simply wind the crown (the same knob used to adjust the time and date) until you meet slight resistance If you do not wear your automatic watch every day, you should try to wind it at least twice a week to ensure continuous operation, as well as keeping the inside mechanism in complete running order.
If you have a mechanical watch, it is best to wind it at the same time every day. This is extremely beneficial for the mechanism. You may want to make it a routine, winding it every morning when you wake up. If your watch has a day/date function, avoid setting the day and/or date at night. The day-date mechanism is activated during the nighttime hours and could be disrupted if set at this time.
What is the difference between a Mechanical Movement and an Automatic movement?
A mechanical movement is a movement based on a mainspring which when wound slowly unwinds the spring in an even motion to provide accurate timekeeping. As opposed to a manual mechanical watch which needs to be wound on a consistent basis, an automatic mechanical requires no winding because of the rotor, which winds the mainspring every time you move your wrist (see our section on automatic watch maintenance for more details).
Eco-drive was created by Citizen and has earned recognition in the watch industry as a leader in ecologically-friendly timekeeping. Citizen Eco-Drive runs continuously in any kind of light (natural or artificial) for a lifetime of use without a battery. The Eco-Drive movement absorbs light through the crystal and dial. Inside the watch, a solar cell converts the light to the energy required to make the watch run.
Shop Eco-Drive Watches
Referring to the Seiko line of Kinetic watches, this innovative technology has a quartz movement that doesn’t use a battery. Movement of the wearer’s wrist charges a very efficient capacitor that powers the quartz movement. Once the capacitor is fully charged, men’s models will store energy for 7-14 days without being worn and ladies’ models will store energy for 3-7 days. The watch alerts the wearer to a low capacitor charge when the second hand starts to move in two-second intervals.
Over the past 20 years, Seiko has created a suite of Kinetic movements, each bringing unique features to the consumer.
It was at the 1986 Basel Fair that Seiko unveiled its first Kinetic prototype. Introduced under the trial name of AGM, it was the first watch in the world to convert kinetic movement into electrical energy. It was the first step in a development that, 20 years later, has made Kinetic synonymous with environmental friendliness, high performance and long-lasting convenience to a generation of users worldwide. From the launch in 1988 of the first commercially available watch (then under the new name AGS) until today, over 8 million Kinetic watches have been sold (as of 2007).
In 1998, Kinetic Auto Relay was released, extending the ‘at-rest’ operating period of the watch to a remarkable 4 years. 1999 brought the launch of the Ultimate Kinetic Chronograph, a masterpiece which fused the very best of Seiko’s mechanical and electronic watchmaking skills, and in 2003, another Kinetic Chronograph was launched. At Baselworld 2005, the Kinetic Perpetual made its first appearance, combining Kinetic convenience and longevity with a perpetual calendar, correct to the year 2100. Most recently in 2007, Seiko’s emotional technology Kinetic Direct Drive was introduced.
Shop Kinetic Watches
Most watches are sturdy enough to protect against normal everyday wear and tear, including light bumps. If you’re going to be engaging in intensive athletic activity, you may want a watch that is also shock-proof. For example, G-Shock by Casio is an extensive line of shock-proof watches.
Shop Casio G-Shock Watches
Shock-resistance confirmed by free-fall test simulating actual usage conditions.
Vibration resistance confirmed by vibrating for 20 minutes or longer with a testing machine generating a 19.6 m/s sine wave.
Shock-resistance further confirmed by striking the watch at rest with a hammer in a 180-degree rotating trajectory.
Retention of water-resistance capability confirmed by underwater pressurization at 200 meters for 5 minutes or longer.
Whether you’re a scuba diver or just a frequent dishwasher at home, you’ll want to pay attention to the water-resistance of your watch. Water-resistance ratings are listed in certain depths, typically in meters, but the numerical depth shouldn’t be taken literally. The depth rating actually represents the results of tests performed in a lab’s pressure chamber, and not real-world sea depths.
A watch marked as water-resistant without a depth indication is designed to withstand accidental splashes of water only. Do not submerge such a watch. Higher levels of water-resistance are indicated by increasingly higher acceptable depths, usually indicated in meters.
A watch with a back that screws onto the case provides a higher degree of water-resistance. Some crowns with a winding stem actually screw into the case to further increase water-resistance.
We do not recommend swimming or diving with your watch unless it has a screw-down crown (also known as ‘screw-lock’ or ‘screw-in’ crown) and is water-resistant to at least 100 meters.
Note: Water-resistance is sometimes listed using the abbreviation ATM, which stands for “atmosphere” and 1 ATM represents 10 meters. In Europe, “bar” is often used instead of ATM.
Below are typical water-resistance ratings and their corresponding parameters for real world usage.
|30 meters (100 feet)||3 ATM||Can withstand rain and splashes of water, such as car washing and showering, but it shouldn’t be worn swimming|
|50 meters (165 feet)||5 ATM||Suitable for swimming, as well as higher altitude sports, such as skiing and parachuting|
|100 meters (330 feet)||10 ATM||Suitable for snorkeling, as well as swimming|
|200 meters (660 feet)||20 ATM||Suitable for recreational scuba diving|
|300 meters (990 feet)||30 ATM||For use when scuba diving to a depth of 30 meters for up to 2 hours|
|500 meters (1650 feet)||50 ATM||For use when scuba diving to a depth of 50 meters for up to 2 hours|
Like everything in life, a watch’s water-resistance isn’t guaranteed forever. The gaskets or O-rings that make up the watch’s watertight seals can degrade over time, and even opening the caseback for changing the battery can affect water-resistance. To make certain that your watch will stand up to the pressure that was designed for, a watch can be tested and repaired by a service center authorized by the manufacturer. Here are some tips on maintaining your timepiece’s water-resistance.
Without a band of some type, you’d have a pocket watch (though there’s certainly nothing wrong with that). But today’s watches are primarily wrist watches, bound to your wrist with a strap made of leather, rubber or fabric, or a metal bracelet. Save for a few activity-specific guidelines, your choice of band comes down to personal preference.
A leather strap is suitable for everyday wear. Finer grades of leather, ranging from alligator to patent, are a great choice with dress watches. However, if you are planning on wearing your watch during water sports, you might prefer to go with a rubber strap instead. Leather straps are not as durable as metal bracelets, but they are easier to replace. Finally, leather straps are typically connected using a standard buckle, but you can also find some that are joined by a deployment buckle (or a butterfly clasp), which opens symmetrically.
Metal bracelets are typically composed of individual links and are joined by a metal-hinged clasp, such as the aforementioned deployment, as well as a fold-over or jewelry clasp. The bracelet attaches to the watch case at the lugs, usually with spring bars, which enables you to easily switch to a leather or rubber strap. However, some higher-end watches have an integrated bracelet, where the watch case and band are designed as a whole, and it usually can’t be replaced by a strap.
Sizing a Metal Bracelet
While leather straps are pretty easy to fit around your wrist with its buckle and punched hold, a metal bracelet can be trickier as one or more links may need removal to correctly size to your wrist. While this can be done on your own using a bracelet tool accessory, we recommend taking your watch to a local jeweler for precise sizing, which can usually be done for $10 to $30. Be sure to keep any links that are removed in case you need to replace a link somewhere down the line.
|Caring for Your Watch
While a watch can be considered a decorative accessory, it is also a tool that needs cleaning and tuning from time to time to ensure its accuracy, looks, and longevity.
Read the Manual
Timepieces with chronographs or specialized complications, such as dual time functions or day-and-date subdials, can be complicated to set for the first time (or remember after several months of not using the function). The first resource you should turn to is the manual that came with your watch, and you should keep it for future reference, as well as warranty and service information. If you have a watch with automatic movement, the manual will also specify maintenance intervals. Should you lose your manual, be sure to check your manufacturer’s website as many provide downloadable PDFs.
The Case for Cleaning
Just as you wash your car to keep its exterior looking fine and protected from corrosion, you’ll want to periodically take a few moments to make sure your timepiece is a clean machine. Here’s a few tips for overall care and cleaning.
Wipe with a lint-free cloth and use a toothpick to extract dirt from crevices. If your watch is water-resistant, you can wipe it with warm water and mild soap, and dry it with a cloth.
After wearing in salt or heavily chlorinated water, rinse the watch in fresh water and dry with a soft, lint-free cloth.
Wipe your watch with a soft cloth after heavy perspiration.
A watch may have a scratch-resistant crystal, but no crystal is truly scratch-proof, so you shouldn’t toss your watch onto the dresser or into a drawer at the end of the day. It’s better to store or wrap it in a soft cloth before placing it down. The more care you take with the watch, the less scratches the watch will acquire. Replace broken or scratched crystals immediately. Even a hairline crack can let dust or moisture into the mechanism, threatening its accuracy. If you place the watch in a drawer with other jewelry, this too may scratch the watch, as it might rub against the other pieces. You might also store the watch in its original case since these cases are generally soft and made specifically for the watch.
Wash it in warm, soapy water and use a soft-bristled toothbrush to extract excess grime. Dry with a soft cloth.
To keep a leather strap looking its best, avoid submersion in water. If it does become wet, wipe it dry with a cloth. Never use a hairdryer.
In the summer, wear leather straps loosely to avoid absorption of perspiration (and to prevent perspiration rash on your wrist). Dry with a cloth, or let it dry in a well-ventilated spot.
No crystal, whether it be mineral or sapphire, is scratch-proof, so you should take care in storing your watch at the end of the day. Wrap it in a soft cloth for optimal protection.
If a crystal has even a hairline crack, replace it immediately.
Automatic watches require a bit more care than those with battery-powered quartz movements, as the self-winding mechanism is more complex. For one thing, an automatic watch is powered by the kinetic movement of your arm, and it will require winding if not worn for several days. Automatic watch mechanisms also benefit from continued movement to keep it calibrated and prevent lubricants from congealing. If you have more than one automatic watch that you switch between, you should consider a watch winder, a device that holds one or several timepieces and moves it in a circular fashion to emulate the human motion that keeps it ticking. They’re also a great way to display your watch collection. When choosing a watch winder, look for devices that have a “turn-and-rest” program, which stops the motor after a specified cycle of spins to more accurately emulate daily activity.
If you don’t wear your automatic watch daily and don’t have a watch winder, wind the watch twice a week and try to do it at approximately the same time of day. (A fully wound automatic watch will keep running for approximately 40 hours.)
Avoid wearing mechanical watches when playing high-impact sports or those that require continuous arm motion (such as tennis).
To help keep your watch protected from the elements:
1. Never submerge even the highest rated water-resistant watch in a hot shower, sauna or hot tub. The extreme heat can cause the metal parts to expand at a different rate than the rubber gaskets. This creates small openings that can allow water droplets to penetrate the watch. Sudden temperature changes are especially harsh. Take care not to jump into a cold pool after wearing your watch in the hot tub.
2. If your watch has a screw-down crown, make sure to screw it tightly into the watch case to help prevent any chance of water getting into your timepiece.
3. After swimming or diving in salt water, immediately rinse the watch in a stream of fresh water. If your watch has a rotating bezel, turn the bezel several times while rinsing it. This will prevent salt buildup and corrosion of the bezel ring.
If you detect any moisture in the watch or the crystal begins to fog, take it to a service professional as soon as possible.
Leather straps can be made to be water-resistant too. Generally however, leather straps are more easily damaged by frequent exposure to water, so if you are going to wear your watch while swimming, think of buying one with a metal bracelet or a rubber or nylon diver strap.
Let the Professionals Handle It
While there are several things you can do on your own to ensure that your watch can be handed down to the next generation, you’ll need to turn to professionals for a few things.
While some metal bracelets can be sized on your own with the purchase of a sizing tool, a watch professional can take the stress out of it and help you size it correctly.
Changing batteries in quartz movement watches (about every two to three years).
If you notice your timepiece running slow or fast, bring it in to a professional for a tune-up that includes internal cleaning and oiling.
What if my watch bracelet is too big for my wrist?
If you ordered a watch with a metal bracelet, you may need to have one or more links removed for the watch fit your wrist properly.
You can take your watch to a reputable jeweler or watch repair shop for sizing. Expect to pay a small fee for this service. If you choose to size your own watch, exercise extreme caution and ensure you have the correct tools for the kind of watch band links you’re removing. If sizing is done incorrectly, a watch can be scratched or damaged. Be aware that most retailers will not accept returns once a watch has been sized, so be sure you want to keep it before you size it.
Tip: Keep the removed links. Watch bracelets occasionally break, and it is a lot easier (and cheaper) to have the bracelet repaired with your own links rather than order new ones. You will also be able to adjust the watch with the extra links if you prefer to wear your watch looser in the future. The best place to keep them is in the watch box with your insertion manual.
What’s the difference between quartz and mechanical (or automatic) movements?
The movement, or inner workings, of the watch are what make up the main timekeeping mechanism. Most watches have either a quartz movement or a mechanical movement. The type of movement you choose depends mostly on one’s taste. Mechanical movements are a tribute to the watchmaker’s art and monitor the passage of time by a series of gear mechanisms.
A mechanical movement that does not have to be wound is known as an automatic movement. These self-winding movements are wound by the movement of your wrist (you don’t have to shake it to work – the normal, everyday movement of the watch on your wrist charges the winding reserve). When this type of watch is removed from your wrist, the movement winds down in 10 to 72 hours, depending on the size of its winding reserve.
Quartz movements, on the other hand, are powered by a battery and do not stop working once removed from your wrist. When activated by a battery or solar power, the thin sliver of crystal very predictably vibrates at an extremely high frequency (32,768 times per second), providing very accurate timekeeping. The battery in a quartz watch generally needs to be replaced every 1.5 years.
What’s a watch crystal?
The crystal is the clear cover over the watch face. Three types of crystals are commonly found in watches. Acrylic crystal is an inexpensive plastic that allows shallow scratches to be buffed out. Mineral crystal is composed of several elements that are heat-treated to create an unusual hardness that aids in resisting scratches. Sapphire crystal is the most expensive and durable, approximately three times harder than mineral crystals and 20 times harder than acrylic crystals. A non-reflective coating on some sport styles prevents glare.
Are watches really water-proof?
No. In fact, they aren’t. It is actually illegal to represent a watch as being water-proof. Watches, however, can be water-resistant. In fact, most watches have some sort of water-resistance. A watch marked as water-resistant without a depth indication is designed to withstand accidental splashes of water only. Do not submerge such a watch. Higher levels of water-resistance are indicated by increasingly higher acceptable depths, usually indicated in meters.
There are a variety of ways to make a watch water-resistant. All such watches use rubber gaskets or “O” rings to seal the case back. A watch with a back that screws onto the case provides a higher degree of water-resistance. Some crowns (the “winding stem”) actually screw into the case to further increase water-resistance.
We do not recommend swimming or diving with your watch unless it has a screw-down crown (also known as “screw-lock” or “screw-in” crown) and is water-resistant to at least 100 meters.
What is a dive watch?
Dive watches traditionally feature a graduated rotating bezel, a screw-down winding crown, and a case back. Dive watches must be water-resistant to at least 200 meters (660 feet).
How do I get the functions on my watch to work?
Because watches offer many different functions, the best way to learn what each function means and how each function works is to refer to the instruction manual that came with your watch.
The typical functions on an analog chronograph watch are a seconds hand, a 30 or 60 minute timer, and 1/10th of a second. These functions are controlled by the buttons above and below the crown.
What do the different movement types mean?
Automatic Movement (Automatic Winding or Self-Winding): Powered by the motion of the wearer’s arm rather than by turning the winding stem. In response to this motion, a rotor turns and winds the watch’s mainspring so that it keeps accurate time. Most automatic watches have up to 36 hours of power reserve. If an automatic watch is not worn for a day or two, it will need to be wound by hand to restart again.
Mechanical Movement: A watch’s mechanical movement is based on a mainspring which slowly unwinds in a steady motion to provide accurate timekeeping. As opposed to a manual mechanical watch, which needs to be wound on a consistent basis, an automatic mechanical watch requires no winding because its rotor winds the mainspring when the wearer moves their wrist. Read the section on automatic watch maintenance for more details.
Quartz: Quartz is a caliber that uses the vibrations of a tiny crystal to maintain timing accuracy. The power comes from a battery that must be replaced about every 2-3 years. In recent years, new Quartz technology enables the watch to recharge itself without battery replacement. This power is generated via movement similar to an automatic mechanical watch, or powered by light through a solar cell (Kinetic and solar-tech).
What is a screw down crown?
A screw-down crown aids water-resistance by sealing the crown to the case of the watch. A seal is achieved when the case locks with the crown’s internal threads and gaskets fastening the crown in its place.
What does it mean if a watch is Swiss Made?
Swiss Made is a label used to indicate that a wrist watch was in Switzerland. A watch is considered completely Swiss Made if it contains a movement that is Swiss, if the movement itself is encased in Switzerland, and if any final quality control by the manufacturer occurs in Switzerland. This is current Swiss law, and changes may occur in the future.